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        諧云 諧云
        在這里探索云原生
        諧云在邊緣計算云邊協同中的落地實踐分享(2)
        2020年09月04日

        基于KubeEdge的云邊協同架構概覽

        至上而下來看,云邊協同平臺向上接入諧云觀云臺,以提供同原生K8S一致的邊緣資源運維管理體驗。向下通過KubeEdge云上組件CloudCore,代理邊緣節點接入kubernetes控制面,納管邊緣數據中心計算資源??v向適配支持K8S原生的可運維性系統-監控、日志、鏡像。

         

        落地實踐與KubeEdge改造賦能

         

        • 節點網絡與容器網絡

         

        在設計節點網絡能力時,首先需要考慮容器網絡能力,即容器網絡需要支持到什么程度。原生Kubernetes網絡中,每個Pod都有一個獨立的IP地址,而且假定所有的Pod都可以在一個直接連通的、扁平的網絡空間中。而在邊緣場景下,打通云中心與邊緣數據中心的容器網絡平面,開銷大,性能低。團隊認為,邊緣數據中心部署的服務與云邊間的訪問鏈路必然是有限而特定的,在需求上,也小于邊緣數據中心內部的Pod互訪需求。對此,我們假定容器網絡各自收斂于每個數據中心,并使用高可用公網網關+Ingress暴露邊緣服務。

         

        另一個決定容器網絡平面范圍的因素是節點網絡,容器網絡基于節點網絡之上,對于100+廣泛分布全國的數據中心,打通跨地域的節點網絡,無論是網絡專線或VPN都是開銷巨大的。因此,我們做了以下假定:

        1. 各數據中心(云+邊緣)內部節點網絡可靠且聯通

        2. 數據中心間節點網絡不可靠,不直連

        3. 數據中心間的互訪需求依賴各數據中心的公網網關。

         

        • 平臺關鍵組件高可用及彈性節點接入能力

        在KubeEdge V1.3之前的版本中,KubeEdge云端組件的可用性依賴于Kubernetes Deployment的自動恢復能力,但極端情況下需要較長的時間進行故障恢復。1.3版本支持了云端組件CloudCore的高可用部署,采用和K8S Controller Manager和scheduler一致的主備高可用原理,當CloudCore實例發生故障時,可以快速切換,最大限度減小云端組件的故障影響。此功能由諧云團隊實現并貢獻至社區。

         

        在集群中,邊緣節點數量過大可能使KubeEdge的CloudCore組件產生性能瓶頸問題,對此我們團隊認為可以橫向部署多套KubeEdge,使每個KubeEdge擴展分管不同區域的邊緣節點,各區域的邊緣節點接入所屬區域的高可用KubeEdge。目前KubeEdge還不支持多套并行部署,多套KubeEdge的運行狀態數據在ETCD中會雜糅。諧云團隊正在開發并計劃貢獻至社區,以分離各套KubeEdge的運行狀態數據。

         

        邊緣節點的可運維性

        • 自動化管理(向上接入諧云SkyView觀云臺)

        SkyView觀云臺是諧云針對傳統IT目前存在的問題,推出的基于容器云技術的運維解決方案。無縫融合容器與計算、存儲及網絡資源,采用DevOps思維重新定義企業開發、運維及運行時環境標準,打造容器云時代高效的IT數據中心。主要功能有:監控立方、敏捷開發工具鏈集成、多租戶資源管理、應用層服務組件。立體資源管理從基礎設施層、系統組件層、容器化應用層全方位監控計算資源,實現細粒度訪問控制。具有高效運維、快速擴展高可用、極佳用戶體驗的優勢。由于KubeEdge是基于Kubernetes的擴展,所以可以無縫接入觀云臺,實現邊緣數據中心計算資源的便捷納管。

         

        ??鏡像(基于公有云的鏡像倉庫服務)

        云邊數據中心跨公網,多地域,除了自己搭建私有鏡像倉庫,極適合使用云廠商的容器鏡像服務。

         

        公有云廠商的容器鏡像服務是一種支持容器鏡像全生命周期管理的服務,提供簡單易用、安全可靠的鏡像管理功能,簡化了Registry的搭建運維工作,支持多地域的鏡像托管。

         

        ??監控

        在1.3版本中,KubeEdge提供了邊緣節點的監控接口,用戶可以在邊緣獲取本節點和容器相關監控信息,實現與第三方監控系統的集成對接。該特性為默認開啟,特殊情況,用戶也可以通過EnableMetrics配置項關閉內置監控模塊。諧云團隊基于此點對KubeEdge做了局部優化并貢獻到了社區,現在支持通過隧道在云端匯聚邊緣節點和應用容器的監控信息,進而提供給MetricServerPrometheus。同時也對MetricServer做了局部優化并貢獻到了k8s社區,以自動區分云上Kubelet節點和邊緣KubeEdge節點。

         

        ??Kubectl log

        在大多數邊緣計算場景中,邊緣節點處于私有網絡環境,無法直接從中心云拉取運行在邊緣節點上的Pod日志,這給應用的運維調試帶來很多不便。KubeEdge v1.3版本內置了流數據通道,用戶可以很方便地通過kubectl logs命令從云端獲取邊緣應用容器日志,無需額外搭建部署VPN服務器解決私網穿透等復雜問題。

         

        邊緣計算新浪潮

        邊緣計算領域方興未艾,云邊協同平臺本質上是一個跨地域的資源納管、算力調度、應用下發解決方案,能將中心容器云的彈性計算能力下沉至邊緣,提高運維效率,減小運維成本。與云計算不同,除了以CPU、內存、硬盤存儲為代表的傳統計算資源,地理區域亦成了應用調度需要考慮的一類新型資源,通常某組應用和某個區域節點強關聯,以滿足應用的低時延需求,數據的安全性需求,網絡的低占用需求。

         

        同時,為盡可能的提高邊緣計算中心的算力以及節省成本,計算核心的架構也不再僅限于CPU或GPU,也有可能為FPGA和ASIC,為了完成特定任務,節點可能還需連接一些專有設備。計算核心越特異,外掛設備種類越不同,節點同應用容器的耦合程度也越深。

         

        隨著互聯網終端及邊緣計算層之間的界限越來越模糊,算力進一步往邊緣擴展也將是必然的發展趨勢,未來邊緣計算也一定會與云計算相互協同,大力促進各大行業數字化領域的轉型。對于邊緣計算領域的發展,諧云也正在積極探索其基礎技術與落地場景,歡迎共同探討。

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        諧云
        2024年03月02日
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